Investigation of factors related to employment outcome following traumatic brain injury: A critical review and conceptual model
Employment outcomes post traumatic brain injury (TBI) result in a financial and social burden. In addition, unemployment may impact the individual's quality of life and emotional well being. The ability to predict vocational outcome using evidenced based guidelines can assist with rehabilitation planning, development of vocational support services and the role adjustment of the individual with a TBI and his or her family members.
A review of the literature to identify key variables associated with positive employment outcomes post TBI can pave the way for future research and the development of rehabilitation practices.
Eighty five studies were identified between 1980 and 2003 that reported on factors associated with employment outcomes post TBI. Among those fifty studies met the inclusion criteria for the second stage review. The criteria used to evaluate and rate the quality of methodology for each study was adapted on guidelines by Sherer 2002 and Pengel et. al. 2003.
The review highlights demographic, injury and neuropsychological factors associated with return to work. It also examines interventions that focus on modifying the social environment in addition to emotional and metacognitive factors. A conceptual model is presented that outlines the factors associated with employment outcomes.
No control or comparison
The most consistent predictors and indicators of employment outcomes included premorbid occupational status, functional status at discharge, global cognitive functioning, perceptual functioning, executive functioning, involvement in vocational rehabilitation services and emotional status. The authors note that although the presence of specific characteristics may be a predictor for failure to return to work the absence of a factor does not guarantee return to work.
There is little evidence to support cognitive rehabilitation. The most successful programs target problems with motivation and emotional disturbance. Interventions to modify the social environment need to occur on multiple levels. A person's preferences for employment impact job retention. Supported employment has been described however, further evaluation of outcomes is needed. At a policy level a major barrier exists in the current service delivery system in which individuals do not have access to long term rehabilitation or specialized vocational support. Changes in public policy and funding could improve service delivery. Developing disability management programs may also assist those at risk for chronic unemployment post TBI.
The review of literature reported that the level of empirical support for employment outcome was greatest for: premorbid occupational status, functional status at discharge, global cognitive functioning, perceptual functioning, executive functioning, involvement in vocational rehabilitation services and emotional status. Future research is needed to determine the role of metacognitive, emotional and social environment factors that can be modified with various interventions. Interventions need to be evaluated to determine evidenced based practices.