Current Opinion in Psychiatry

Authors: Bond, G. R. & Kukla, M.
Year Published 2008
Publication Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Volume 21
Number 4
Pages 362-369
Publisher Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams and Wilkins

Researches continue to examples predictors of employment among three types of variables: patient characteristics, environmental characteristics, and interventions. Provision of supported employment is the strongest predictor of competitive employment among patients with schizophrenia. Patent characteristics show modest association with employment outcomes; environmental factors are presumed to have major influences, but have been little studied.


Researchers continue to study factors that are relatively easy to study rather than those that are powerful and meaningful from a public health perspective. Truly critical factors are first, disability, insurance, and employment regulations that discourage most people from trying to work, and second, failure to align finances and organization of services with evidenced based practices." Article reviews current literature on the various factors being researched that impact employment outcomes for patients with schizophrenia.


This study is a systematic review. The included studies were undertaken in various locations and settings.


The study sample was recently published studies examining predictors of competitive employment for patients with schizophrenia.

Data Collection

Literature search included a combination of strategies,, including PubMed search with keywords, examination of table of contents from major journals in related fields, and consultation with leading researchers.


There were no comparison or control conditions.


Implementing supported employment services with high fidelity to the IPS model clearly improves competitive employment outcomes.


According to the published literature, the single best predictor of competitive employment for patients with schizophrenia is supported employment. Despite numerous studies seeking to identify patients characteristics predicting employment, the reported findings have been generally unimpressive. Many factors influencing employment outcomes continue to be understudied, including societal and cultural factors, access to supported employment, regulatory factors, and criminal justice involvement.

Disabilities Emotional disturbance
Populations Male & Female
Outcomes Employment acquisition
Research Design Systematic reviews and meta-analysis
Peer Reviewed Yes