Enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy for vocational rehabilitation in schizophrenia: Effects on hope and work

Authors: Macias, C., Rodican, C. F., Hargreaves, W. A., Jones, D. R., Barreira, P. J., & Wang, Q.
Year Published 2005
Publication Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development
Volume 42
Number 5
Pages 673-682
Publisher Department of Veteran Affairs

Many unemployed or disabled adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders wish to work again yet doubt their ability to succeed. As the result of factors including stigma, practitioners' negative expectations, and the deficits associated with severe mental illness, many with schizophrenia spectrum disorders view themselves as being minimally competent, of low social value, and possibly beyond help. They may believe that they have little ability to influence their lives and construct a personal narrative in which they expect social and vocational failure.


To address the effects of dysfunctional cognitions on vocational outcome of people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, the Indianapolis Vocational Intervention Program, a cognitive-behavioral program of group and individual interventions was developed.


The setting was various community employment sites.


The study sample included 50 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders.

Data Collection

Hours worked were measured weekly, and work performance was assessed biweekly with the use of the Work Behavior Inventory. Hope and self-esteem were assessed at baseline and at 5 months with the Beck Hopelessness Scale and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Schedule.


The condition was standard support services.


Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the IVIP group worked significantly more weeks and had better average work performance than the standard support group. Repeated measures ANOVA of baseline and follow-up scores indicated that the Indianapolis Vocational Intervention Program. group sustained baseline levels of hope and self-esteem through follow-up, while the standard support group experienced declines.


Results provide initial evidence of the effectiveness of the Indianapolis Vocational Intervention Program.

URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16586193
Disabilities Emotional disturbance
Populations Male & Female
Outcomes Employment acquisition
Research Design Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs)
Peer Reviewed Yes