Investigation of factors related to employment outcome following traumatic brain injury: A critical review and conceptual model
|Publication||Disability and Rehabilitation|
|Publisher||Taylor & Francis Ltd|
Employment outcomes post traumatic brain injury (TBI) result in a financial and social burden. In addition, unemployment may impact the individual's quality of life and emotional well being. The ability to predict vocational outcome using evidenced based guidelines can assist with rehabilitation planning, development of vocational support services and the role adjustment of the individual with a TBI and his or her family members.
A review of the literature to identify key variables associated with positive employment outcomes post TBI can pave the way for future research and the development of rehabilitation practices.
Eighty five studies were identified between 1980 and 2003 that reported on factors associated with employment outcomes post TBI. Among those fifty studies met the inclusion criteria for the second stage review. The criteria used to evaluate and rate the quality of methodology for each study was adapted on guidelines by Sherer 2002 and Pengel et. al. 2003.
No control or comparison
The most consistent predictors and indicators of employment outcomes included premorbid occupational status, functional status at discharge, global cognitive functioning, perceptual functioning, executive functioning, involvement in vocational rehabilitation services and emotional status. The authors note that although the presence of specific characteristics may be a predictor for failure to return to work the absence of a factor does not guarantee return to work.
The review of literature reported that the level of empirical support for employment outcome was greatest for: premorbid occupational status, functional status at discharge, global cognitive functioning, perceptual functioning, executive functioning, involvement in vocational rehabilitation services and emotional status. Future research is needed to determine the role of metacognitive, emotional and social environment factors that can be modified with various interventions. Interventions need to be evaluated to determine evidenced based practices.
|Disabilities||Traumatic brain injury (TBI)|
|Populations||Male & Female | Black / African American | White / Caucasian|
|Outcomes||Employment acquisition | Return to work|
|Research Design||Systematic reviews and meta-analysis|