Predictors of post-high school employment among young adults with disabilities

Authors: 
Reif, S., Horgan, C., Ritter, G., & Tompkins, C.
Year Published: 
2002
Publication: 
Career Development for Exceptional Individuals
Volume: 
25
Number: 
1
Pages: 
25-40
Publisher: 
Sage
Background: 

Employment status is one of the most frequently researched outcomes following school exit for young adults with disabilities. Reported employment rates have been low, particularly for full-time employment. Factors related to transition success have also been investigated.

Purpose: 

The purpose of this study was to examine data from the Alabama Transition Initiative related to student outcomes. The aim was to identify school, student, and program related variables that contributed to successful employment after school.

Setting: 

The study settings were 37 of Alabama‚ 128 public school systems. These school systems served as the state‚ demonstration sites for its transition systems change project. They were selected through ATI‚ annual competition for transition mini-grants to enhance their transition programs through implementation of a set of best practices and participation in the Alabama Student Tracking System.

Sample: 

The sample consisted of 1,393 former special education students from the participating school systems and who responded to a follow-up survey. The majority the sample members were male (67%) and Caucasian (52%), with 38% African-American. The largest disability group was those with learning disabilities (42%) followed by those with intellectual disabilities (20%).

Data Collection: 

Data for this study were obtained through the Alabama Student Tracking System and a follow-along survey one year post school exit related to participation in employment, postsecondary education, and other adult activities. Data analysis was a hierarchical logistic regression analysis.

Intervention: 

The sample consisted of 1,393 former special education students from the participating school systems and who responded to a follow-up survey. The majority the sample members were male (67%) and Caucasian (52%), with 38% African-American. The largest disability group was those with learning disabilities (42%) followed by those with intellectual disabilities (20%).

Control: 

There were no control or comparison groups.

Findings: 

The follow-up survey found that 73% of former students were employed one year following school exit. Employment outcomes were better for those who were male, with learning disabilities, from urban school systems. Related to the interventions, having a job at school exit was a significant predictor of post-school employment, but assistance from VR or MH/MI services were not.

Conclusions: 

These findings suggest that students with disabilities can benefit from paid work experiences while in high school. In addition, females in rural settings need better transition planning and programs.

URL: 
http://cde.sagepub.com/content/25/1/25.refs?patientinform-links=yes&legid=spcde;25/1/25
NIDILRR Funded: 
Research Design: 
Peer Reviewed: 
Yes

Developing evidence-based supported employment services for young adults receiving public mental health services

Authors: 
Pryce, J., Munir, F., & Haslam, C.
Year Published: 
2009
Publication: 
New Zealand Journal of Occupational Therapy
Volume: 
56
Number: 
1
Pages: 
34-39
Publisher: 
Zealand Association of Occupational Therapists Inc.
Background: 

Successful implementations of evidence-based supported employment for people with psychiatric disabilities are well documented in the USA. While international reports are informative, the differences among developed countries in terms of labour markets, health, and welfare systems, means that Australian and New Zealand experiences can best guide the introduction of evidence-based practices in the Australian and New Zealand contexts.

Purpose: 

This report describes the application of an evidence-based practice fidelity measure to monitor the effectiveness of an expanding supported employment program for youth adults with first episode psychosis.

Setting: 

The setting was 4 demonstration sites where employment staff co-located within an early intervention psychosis team.

Sample: 

The study sample was made up of 134 individuals. Sixty four percent were diagnosed with first episode psychosis, and received services from a community based early intervention psychosis team.

Data Collection: 

The IPS Fidelity scale was applied to each site. Data was collected and scored consistent with the Fidelity Scale directions.

Intervention: 

The intervention was the Individual Placement and Support (IPS)model of supported employment. This is a systematic approach to helping people with severe mental illness achieve competitive employment. It is based on eight principles: eligibility based on client choice, focus on competitive employment, integration of mental health and employment services, attention to client preferences, work incentives planning, rapid job search, systematic job development, and individualized job supports. Systematic reviews have concluded that IPS is an evidence-based practice

Control: 

Control conditions varied across the studies. Conditions included Group skills training, enhanced vocational rehabilitation, psychosocial rehabilitation, diversified placement, train-place, sheltered workshop, brokered vocational rehabilitation, and traditional vocational services.

Findings: 

Both low and high scoring fidelity items helped identify practical ways to further develop evidence-based practices at each site.

Conclusions: 

Fidelity strengths and weaknesses can be identified that have implications for other sites in terms of what employment consultants can most constructively do in context of the restraints of their immediate environment.

URL: 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4417652/
Disabilities: 
NIDILRR Funded: 
Research Design: 
Peer Reviewed: 
Yes

Effectiveness of vocational rehabilitation following acquired brain injury: Preliminary evaluation of a UK specialist rehabilitation programme

Authors: 
Nachreiner, N. M., Dagher, R. K., McGovern, P. M., Baker, B. A., Alexander, B. H., & Gerberich, S. G.
Year Published: 
2006
Publication: 
Brain Injury
Volume: 
20
Number: 
11
Pages: 
1119-1129
Publisher: 
Informa Healthcare
Background: 

Individuals with Acquired Brain Injury have difficulties with returning to work. Studies show only around 30% returning to work.

Purpose: 

The purpose of the study is to determine the effectiveness of a vocational rehabilitation programme in assisting individuals with Acquired Brain Injury with returning to work or other meaningful activity.

Setting: 

Three Brain Injury Centres based across the United Kingdom.

Sample: 

Participants included 232 individuals with ABI who were discharged from the program between January 2000 and December 2002. The majority were males (82%) and 12% were females. The mean age was 33 years with a range from 17 to 62 years. The majority of injuries were TBI (62%). The date of a person's' injury and enrollment in the programme. ranged from 7 months to 35.5 years. And at the time of injury the majority of individuals has been employed (70%). At the time of entry into the program 92% of the participants were receiving an Incapacity Benefit and regarded as unemployable.

Data Collection: 

Data was gathered using administrative databases and other records located at the three centres. Job roles were classified using the UK standard occupational classification system. Data on outcomes was classified into one of the following: paid competitive work, education and training, voluntary work, discharge to other services, client withdrew and discharged for other reasons.

Intervention: 

Participants engaged in a vocational programme that included a per-vocational rehabilitation phase that provided intensive basic cognitive rehabilitation and in-site vocational trails phase. Afterwards, a supported job search and job coaching was offered to assist individuals with gaining work along with follow up support for up to 5 years.

Control: 

There was no control or comparison condition.

Findings: 

Upon exiting the programme, 41% of the participants had secured paid competitive employment; 16% were volunteering and 15% had entered a training or education. Among the remaining 28%, 15 % were discharged due to medical or rehabilitation programmes to deal with other issues and 13% withdrew. There was no formal cost analysis of the effectiveness of the intervention.

Conclusions: 

A total of 72% of those enrolled in the programme left to start a meaningful activity with 41% securing work. Vocational rehabilitation seems effective in assisting individuals with ABI with returning to work.

URL: 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17123928
NIDILRR Funded: 
Research Design: 
Peer Reviewed: 
Yes

Ex-post-facto analysis of competitive employment outcomes for individuals with mental retardation: National perspective

Authors: 
Morgan, L., Leatzow, A., Clark, S., & Siller, M.
Year Published: 
2004
Publication: 
Mental Retardation
Volume: 
42
Number: 
4
Pages: 
253-262
Publisher: 
American Association on Mental Retardation
Background: 

Employment outcomes have often been used as a benchmark of vocational rehabilitation success. Not until the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, were states required to target individuals with significant disabilities for services using an order of selection process. Because of the functional differences that exist between individuals with mild, moderate and significant cognitive disabilities, rehabilitation counselors must be aware of the types of services most needed and those services that more often result in high quality employment outcomes for each target group.

Purpose: 

The purpose of this study was to provide a snapshot to generate new knowledge that rehabilitation counselors can apply to enhance competitive employment outcome placements for individuals of varying abilities. In addition, the purpose of the study was to identify disparities in the proportions of competitive job placements between individuals with mild, moderate, and significant cognitive disabilities.

Setting: 

This study included individuals with disabilities served by multiple vocational rehabilitation agencies in various settings.

Sample: 

The study sample included all consumers with cognitive disabilities closed into Status 26 during fiscal year 1998 in the RSA-911 national database maintained by the Rehabilitation Services Administration. This included a total of 28,565 consumers: mild (n = 17,033, 60%), moderate (n = 9,784, 34%), severe/profound (n = 1,748, 6.1%).

Data Collection: 

The data was obtained from the individual client closure reports and RSA-911 national data tape, provided by the Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA). The authors used two tests of statistical significance: chi-square and logistic regression analysis. Chi-square analysis was conducted for type of mental retardation and work status at closure. In addition the authors conducted a post hoc pairwise comparisons (2 x 2 chi-square) for mild by moderate, mild by severe/profound and moderate by severe/profound. To guard against Type I errors, the authors used the Bonferroni technique, which resulted in an adjusted alpha of .003. Then, the authors used logistic regression analysis to evaluate the linear relationship between vocational rehabilitation services and work status at closure. Then, chi-square tests were used to evaluate the proportions of significant vocational rehabilitation services received by consumers with mild, moderate, or severe/profound cognitive disabilities. Then, the relationship between type of cognitive disability and work status at closure were evaluated for consumers who received vocational rehabilitation services. Those consumers who had not received VR services were then eliminated from the sample. The desktop version of SPSS for Windows, version 11.5 was used in this analysis.

Intervention: 

The intervention was vocational rehabilitation services.

Control: 

There was no control or comparison condition.

Findings: 

The majority of the individuals in the population were Caucasian (73%). Assessment, adjustment, counseling, job-finding services, and job-placement services were received by 81%, 34%, 78%, 60% and 58%, respectively. Analysis of the data found that 8%5 of the participants were closed into competitive jobs following vocational rehabilitation intervention. Consumers with mild mental retardation were significantly more likely to achieve competitive jobs when compared to those with moderate or severe/profound cognitive disabilities. In addition, individuals with moderate cognitive disabilities were significantly more likely to be placed into competitive jobs compared to those with severe/profound disabilities. The odds of obtaining competitive employment for consumers who received job placement services was 2.05 times the odds for those not receiving those services. The odds of obtaining competitive employment for consumers who received counseling were 1.52 times the odds of those who did not receive counseling. The odds of obtaining competitive employment for consumers who received business and vocational training were 2.14 times the odds of those who did not. However, consumers with mild mental retardation were provided with business and vocational training at a significantly higher proportion when compared to those with moderate and severe/profound disabilities. Consumers with moderate mental retardation were no more likely to receive counseling services than those with mild cognitive disabilities. However, consumers with severe/profound cognitive disabilities were less likely to receive counseling services than those with mild/moderate disabilities. Consumers who received job placement services with mild cognitive disabilities achieved competitive jobs at a significantly higher proportion than those with moderate or severe/profound mental retardation. In addition, consumers with moderate cognitive disabilities were significantly more likely to achieve competitive jobs than individuals with severe/profound disabilities. Consumers with mild cognitive disabilities who received business and vocational services achieved competitive jobs at a significantly higher proportion than those with moderate and severe/profound cognitive disabilities. Consumers with mild disabilities who received counseling achieved competitive jobs at a significantly higher proportion when compared to those with moderate and severe/profound disabilities. In addition, consumers with moderate cognitive disabilities were more likely to achieve competitive employment when compared to consumers with severe/profound disabilities.

Conclusions: 

Consumers with Moderate or severe/profound cognitive disabilities were closed into competitive employment at a significantly lower rate than those with mild cognitive disabilities. Consumers who were provided with business and vocational training, counseling, and job-placement services were significantly more likely to achieve competitive jobs. A significantly lower proportion of these services were provided to consumers with severe/profound cognitive disabilities.

The authors concluded that the significantly higher proportion of consumers with mild cognitive disabilities achieving competitive employment could be related to the specific services they more often receive. Perhaps consumers with mild disabilities are more likely to be provided job-placement services as opposed to those with severe/profound cognitive disabilities. The authors ask the questions: Why do consumers with mild or moderate cognitive disabilities more likely to receive job placement and counseling services compared to those with severe/profound disabilities? They propose that too much attention may be given to assessment/testing results and other nonrelevant dimensions that could prohibit the provision of effective services. They also propose that there may be a subjective belief that places a lesser value on the overall potential of individuals with significant cognitive disabilities. Counselors may believe that consumers with severe/profound cognitive disabilities are more difficult to place. Their expectation of successful employment outcomes may result in less significant placement efforts for this population.

The authors state that their findings raise questions that could not be answered through the RSA-911 database. The database does not provide information on reasons for the provision of certain services to consumers with mild, moderate, or severe/profound cognitive disabilities. The database does not contain information on Counselors' perceptions of service effectiveness or how they provide the specific services. Finally, the small proportion of individuals with severe/profound cognitive disabilities raises an important question about the decision-making process counselors use to determine if a consumer can benefit from vocational rehabilitation services.

URL: 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15230653
NIDILRR Funded: 
Research Design: 
Peer Reviewed: 
Yes

Disparities in job placement outcomes among deaf, late-deafened, and hard-of-hearing consumers

Authors: 
Moore, C. L., Harley, D. A., & Gamble, D.
Year Published: 
2001
Publication: 
Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin
Volume: 
44
Number: 
3
Pages: 
144-150
Publisher: 
Hammill Institute on Disabilities
Background: 

There is an emphasis placed on vocational rehabilitation programs to deliver high-quality employment outcomes. Competitive jobs allow VR consumers to acquire transferable skills as well as to earn higher wages.

Purpose: 

The purpose of this study is to provide state VR agencies a national benchmark to compare rates at which consumers who are deaf, late-deafened, and hard-of-hearing achieve competitive jobs and to compare rates at which these target groups are provided with specific types of VR services.

Setting: 

This study included individuals who are deaf, late deafened and hard of hearing served by multiple vocational rehabilitation agencies in various settings.

Sample: 

RSA-911 data on all VR consumers who were identified as deaf, late-deafened, and hard-of-hearing during fiscal year 1997 and closed successfully in status 26. (15,248 individuals)

Data Collection: 

RSA-911 national data tape. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses.

Intervention: 

VR services including assessment, restoration, college or university training, adjustment, on-the-job training, counseling, job-finding services, job placement, transportation, and maintenance.

Control: 

There was no control or comparison condition.

Findings: 

A significantly greater proportion of VR consumers who are deaf achieve competitive jobs than of consumers who are late-deafened and hard-of-hearing. Consumers who were deaf were provided with significantly more college/university training, business and vocational training, on-the-job training and job placement than consumers were were late-deafened and hard-of-hearing.

Conclusions: 

Consumers who were late-deafened and hard-of-hearing were not provided with effective training and with job placement services at the same rate as consumers who were deaf. Some VR counselors may have assumed that consumers who are late-deafened and hard-of-hearing were less likely to benefit from such services. VR counselors may want to inform consumers of the availability of such services.

URL: 
http://rcb.sagepub.com/content/44/3/144.short
Disabilities: 
Populations: 
NIDILRR Funded: 
Research Design: 
Peer Reviewed: 
Yes

Predictors of employment and postsecondary education of youth with autism

Authors: 
Moore, C. L.
Year Published: 
2012
Publication: 
Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin
Volume: 
55
Number: 
3
Pages: 
176-184
Publisher: 
Sage
Background: 

The increasing numbers of students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), exiting school an seeking Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) services has sparked interest in research of predictors of employment success.

Purpose: 

The purpose of this study was to identify predictors or employment success for students with ASD who use VR services in transition from school to adulthood. Predictors included both demographic and specific VR service categories.

Setting: 

This study included individuals with disabilities served by multiple vocational rehabilitation agencies in various settings.

Sample: 

The study sample consisted of 2,913 youth and young adults who received VR services during the transition period from school to adulthood. Ages at application for services ranged from 16 to 26, and none were employed at application.

Data Collection: 

Data collection for the RSA 911 data system is initiated at the time of application and ends at case closure. The system includes client demographic variables, service delivery variables, and outcome variables. Stepwise backward binary logistic regression was used to test the relationships between the predictors and the outcomes that were measured as categorical variables integrated employment and postsecondary education improvement.

Intervention: 

Interventions were the following service categories used in the VR RSA 911 data set: Assessment, counseling and guidance, job readiness training, job search, job placement, on-the-job supports, college, miscellaneous training, and other services.

Control: 

There was no control or comparison condition.

Findings: 

The odds of achieving competitive employment were greater for youth who received job placement services. However, only 48% of youth with ASD received this service. In addition, postsecondary education was among the strongest predictors of better earnings, yet only 10% of youth received college services.

Conclusions: 

The study's findings provide evidence that job placement services and college services can improve employment outcomes for youth with autism. They recommend that VR agencies offer those services to more youth with autism.

URL: 
http://www.worksupport.com/kter/documents/pdf/Migliore2012.pdf
NIDILRR Funded: 
Research Design: 
Peer Reviewed: 
Yes

Analyzing vocational outcomes of individuals with psychiatric disabilities who received state vocational rehabilitation services: A data mining approach

Authors: 
Roush, S.
Year Published: 
2007
Publication: 
International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Volume: 
53
Number: 
4
Pages: 
357-368
Publisher: 
Sage
Background: 

Poor vocational rehabilitation outcomes are seen for those with psychiatric disabilities; 80% to 85% are unemployed nationally. The authors claim that a lack of research into vocational rehabilitation services and outcomes is the cause for the high unemployment rates.

Purpose: 

The purpose of the study is to examine factors that affect vocational outcomes in the vocational rehabilitation process for people with psychiatric disabilities who received state Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) services.

Setting: 

The Rehabilitation Services Administration FY 2001 Case Service Report (RSA-911)was analyzed using data mining. This study included individuals with psychiatric disabilities served by multiple vocational rehabilitation agencies in various settings.

Sample: 

Participants in the study included only individuals who had a status code of 26 (working) or status code of 28 (not working).

Data Collection: 

The Exhaustive Chi-Square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) data mining technique was used. The technique requires the use of categorical values; therefore, age and education (continuous variables) were recoded into categories. Decision trees "were used to generate rules for the classification of this dataset" (p. 360). SPSS AnswerTree 2.0 statistical software was used for the data analysis.

Intervention: 

The independent variables were: gender, age, race, severity of disability, education, benefits, rehabilitation services provided.

Control: 

The dependent variable included were the status codes 26 or 28.

Findings: 

Those who were receiving job placement and counseling services, did not receive any government benefits, attended special education in high school, graduated from high school or had college experience, and received comprehensive assessment and vocational training were the most likely to be employed. Those who did not receive job placement services but did receive counseling, restorative and transportation services, and government benefits were the most likely to remain unemployed.

Conclusions: 

An increase in the number of persons diagnosed with a psychiatric disability is expected as services are provided by public rehabilitation services rather than community-based services. Rehabilitation professionals should be made aware of the unique challenges and trained in the use of the Individual Placement and Support model.

URL: 
http://www.worksupport.com/kter/documents/pdf/AnalyzingVocationalOutcomes.pdf
Disabilities: 
Populations: 
NIDILRR Funded: 
Research Design: 
Peer Reviewed: 
Yes

The Menu Approach to supported employment for individuals with severe and persistent mental illness: Outcomes in an Oregon community based program

Authors: 
Salyers, M. P., Becker, D. R., Drake, R. E.,Torrey, W. C., & Wyzik, P. F.
Year Published: 
2009
Publication: 
Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation
Volume: 
31
Number: 
1
Pages: 
45-51
Publisher: 
IOS Press
Background: 

The employment rate for individuals with severe mental illness is poor. This is despite the fact that they have expressed an interest in work. The supported employment model developed to serve people with developmental disabilities has been adapted to serve this group. One approach is the Individual Placement and Support model of supported employment. Another one is the Menu Approach. The Individual Placement and Support approach has been thoroughly investigated and has been deemed effective. The Menu Approach has not.

Purpose: 

The goal of this study was to evaluate outcomes of a Menu approach to assist individuals with Mental Illness with gaining and maintaining employment.

Setting: 

The setting was a variety of employment sites located in the Pacific Northwest where individuals with mental illness worked.

Sample: 

The sample was taken from individuals with severe mental illness who were served by the program from 2000 to 2006. This resulted in a total of 140 people that met the study criteria.

Data Collection: 

Abacus program records were reviewed to identify individuals served during the established time frame. Then rates of successful employment and trends were identified. To ensure confidentiality each participant was randomly assigned a number during data analysis. General demographics was collect from records. Records were reviewed by the primary investigator and a graduate student. Other data collected from the file review related to employment outcomes and whether or not ongoing support was accessed. Reliability was checked using cross referencing and strengthened by having the student randomly code one fourth of the data which was compared to the primary investigators coding. Coded data was entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 15.0. The package calculated statistics that were used to develop and describe program employment outcomes.

Intervention: 

The intervention was a menu-based Supported employment approach provided by the Abacus Program, that works cooperatively with the State's Office of Vocational Rehabilitation Services.

Control: 

There was no control condition. There was a pre/post comparison only.

Findings: 

Among the 140 participants there were 83 reports of successful employment. The majority of those who went to work or 82% received ongoing support services. The mean number of weeks to obtain employment was 13.9. Job search services varied from behind the scenes help to job development. Most positions were entry level. The average number of months employed was nine. The most frequently reported reason for not going to work was client choice (40.4%); followed by physical medical issues (17.5%).

Conclusions: 

The Menu Approach lead to positive employment outcomes. Additional research is needed to determine if these outcomes were exclusive to the Abacus program or can be replicated.

URL: 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19923675
Disabilities: 
Populations: 
Outcomes: 
NIDILRR Funded: 
Research Design: 
Peer Reviewed: 
Yes

A ten-year follow-up of a supported employment program

Authors: 
Schene, A., Koeter, M., Kikkert, M., Swinkels, J., & Crone, P.
Year Published: 
2004
Publication: 
Psychiatric Services
Volume: 
55
Number: 
3
Pages: 
302-308
Publisher: 
American Psychiatric Association
Background: 

Supported employment is considered to be an evidence-based practice for people with psychiatric disabilities. The rate of competitive employment within supported employment programs is three times higher than those in other programs.

Purpose: 

The purpose of the study was to review the outcomes of supported employment 10 years after an initial demonstration project.

Setting: 

The setting included two rural rehabilitative day centers in New Hampshire that became Individual Placement and Support model centers.

Sample: 

The sample included 20 participants in the 1990 Lebanon group and 24 participants in the 1992 Claremont group; a total of 36 were in the follow-up study 10 years later.

Data Collection: 

A semi-structured interview was developed, which included open-ended questions. Open-ended questions were transferred into structured ratings

Intervention: 

The intervention was the Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model of supported employment.

Control: 

There was no control or comparison condition.

Findings: 

Seventy percent of the participants had had some type of competitive employment. Eighty eight percent (N=17) were employed at the time of the study.

Conclusions: 

The study concluded that supported employment is a viable option for people with psychiatric disorders. Further study is needed to determine is self-sufficiency is a realistic goal given that many people don't consider self-sufficiency as a goal to reach when obtaining competitive employment.

URL: 
http://www.worksupport.com/kter/documents/pdf/A10yearfollowupofSupportedEmployment.pdf
Disabilities: 
Populations: 
Outcomes: 
NIDILRR Funded: 
Research Design: 
Peer Reviewed: 
Yes

SESAMI* study of employment support for people with severe mental health problems: 12-month outcomes

Authors: 
Schoenbaum, M., Unützer, J., McCaffrey, D., Duan N., Sherbourne, C., & Wells, K.
Year Published: 
2009
Publication: 
Health & Social Care in the Community
Volume: 
17
Number: 
2
Pages: 
151-158
Publisher: 
Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Background: 

Individuals with severe mental illness are underrepresented in the workforce in the United Kingdom. A welfare to work policy was implemented. Guidelines recommend using evidenced based practices, the Individual Placement and Support model, to help people with mental health issues with gaining and maintaining work. It is important to understand what is currently going on to improve existing practices.

Purpose: 

This study was undertaken to learn about factors associated with successful employment and the impact of work on individuals with mental illness.

Setting: 

Six British agencies that specialized in providing services to individuals with mental illness.

Sample: 

One hundred and eighty two individuals with mental health problems participated in the study. Follow up interviews were conducted with 85% of this sample. The majority or 84% were White British or European. Ages ranged from 22 to 67 years with an mean of 42 years. About a third, or 32% reported depression, 25% anxiety, 25% schizophrenia, hallucinations or hearing voices, 14% bipolar and 4% other in response to being asked to describe his or her condition. Fifty five percent of the participants were unemployed, 29% were unemployed, 9% were in work placement and 5% in sheltered work.

Data Collection: 

The study questionnaire included the following measures. The Empowerment Among Users of Mental Health Services Scale; the Herth Hope Index, Perceived obstacles to work; and behaviours indicating nearness to the labour market. This questionnaire was usually completed during an approximately one hour face to face interview. The first was completed at baseline and another at follow up (12 months later).Statistically significant differences were tested. Analysis of variance was also used. SPSS 15.0 was used to analyze all data.

Intervention: 

The intervention was supported employment in the United Kingdom.

Control: 

There was no comparison or control group.

Findings: 

Eighty two percent of those working at baseline were employed one year later. Twenty five percent of those individuals who were unemployed were assisted with gaining work during this time. Financial satisfaction and self esteem increased among those who went to work. In addition, there was a tendency to work part-time.

Conclusions: 

Those who worked reported multiple benefits. The evidence from this study should inform service planning and the Individual Placement and Support model should be implemented in England.

URL: 
https://www.researchonline.org.uk/sds/search/taxonomy.do%3Bjsessionid=948B7FBF03C6A71157E4FD25729AE479?action=document&ref=A20206&pager.offset=140&taxonomy=GIN
Disabilities: 
Outcomes: 
NIDILRR Funded: 
Research Design: 
Peer Reviewed: 
Yes