Supported employment for middle-aged and older people with schizophrenia.

Authors: Twamley, E. W., Padin, D. S., Bayne, K. S., Narvaez, J. M., Williams, R. E., & Jeste, D. V.
Year Published 2008
Publication American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation
Volume 11
Number 1
Pages 76-89
Publisher Routledge

Older people with severe mental illness are frequently assumed to be incapable of returning to work and are not actively recruited to participate in work rehabilitation programs. However, just as healthy older people are working well past traditional retirement age, many older people with schizophrenia want to work. However, very few vocational rehabilitation programs target older clients with psychiatric illness.


This study examined employment outcomes among adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in a 12-month randomized controlled trial comparing two work rehabilitation programs: Individual Placement and Support (IPS; a supported employment model) and conventional vocational rehabilitation.


The setting was an outpatient clinic in San Diego, California and various places of employment.


The study sample included 50 participants,30 men and 20 women who were 45 years or older, had a DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and were receiving their psychiatric care at an outpatient clinic. Twenty subjects were diagnosed with schizophrenia, and 30 were diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder. They were referred by state vocational rehabilitation.

Data Collection

The following techniques were used t-tests, chi-square, logistic regression, and repeated measures ANOVA to analyze the data. Alpha for significance was set at p < .05, and all tests were two-tailed. Cohen's d effect sizes to provide estimates of the magnitude of effects was also calculated.


Conventional vocational rehabilitation programs use a train-then-place approach, emphasizing prevocational training classes and volunteer, transitional, or trial employment before seeking competitive work (i.e., employment in the community at prevailing wages).


Compared with Conventional Vocational Rehabilitation, Individual Placement and Support resulted in statistically better work outcomes, including attainment of competitive employment, number of weeks worked, and wages earned. Cohen's d effect sizes for these variables were medium to large (.66-.81). Treatment group predicted future attainment of competitive work, but demographic and clinical variables (e.g., age, gender, ethnicity, education, illness duration, and medication dose) did not predict employment outcomes. Participants who obtained competitive employment reported improved quality of life over time compared to those who did not.


These findings suggest that for middle-aged and older clients with schizophrenia, supported employment results in better work outcomes than does conventional vocational rehabilitation. Furthermore, age was not significantly associated with attainment of competitive work. Finally, the therapeutic value of work is reflected in improved quality of life.

Disabilities Emotional disturbance
Populations Male & Female | American Indian or Alaska Native | Asian | Black / African American | White / Caucasian
Outcomes Employment acquisition | Wages
Research Design Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs)
Peer Reviewed Yes